Attempts are being made to adapt Old World monkey malarial parasites to New World monkeys for vaccine and molecular studies. Several of these (Plasmodium cynomolgi Berok, Plasmodium fragile, and Plasmodium knowlesi) grow readily but have failed to produce infective gametocytes. Plasmodium gonderi and Plasmodium fieldi develop in the liver after sporozoite inoculation but have failed to establish infection in the erythrocyte. Anopheles dirus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium inui shortti by feeding on infected macaques transmitted the infection to Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Infective gametocytes were produced, and sporozoite transmission from Saimiri to Saimiri monkey was obtained. Exoerythrocytic stages have also been observed in the liver tissue of Saimiri monkeys. The availability of the complete transmission cycle provides an additional resource for immunologic and vaccine studies.
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