A new hepatic dicrocoeliid species, Brachylecithum mackoi n. sp. (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae), is described from the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus (L.) (Insectivora, Erinaceidae). An infected host was found in the Mediterranean island of Elba (Italy), and more than 60 individuals were isolated from the biliary ducts. The holotype and 55 paratypes were examined. Brachylecithum mackoi n. sp. differs from congeneric species found in mammal hosts by having well-developed lappets in the ventral sucker, a sloping uterus between anterior testis and acetabulum, no overlap between vitellaria, and metrical features in the body size, sucker diameters, cirrus sac, and size of eggs. The only other Brachylecithum species of erinaceids in Europe and Africa, Brachylecithum aetechini Dollfus, 1951, differs from the new species in the above-mentioned morphological characters, greater dimensions of the body, and oral sucker, pharynx, cirrus sac, and egg dimensions. The presence of B. mackoi n. sp. in Elba Island is discussed in the light of apparent host specificity of erinaceid dicrocoeliids and geographical distribution of Palearctic and Ethiopian Erinaceidae.
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