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1 October 2004 SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN EASTERN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA)
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Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii has recently been recognized to be widely prevalent in the marine environment. It has previously been determined that Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) can remove sporulated T. gondii oocysts from seawater and that oocysts retain their infectivity for mice. This study examined the long-term survival of T. gondii oocysts in oysters and examined how efficient oysters were at removing oocysts from seawater. Oysters in 76-L aquaria (15 oysters per aquarium) were exposed to 1 × 106 oocysts for 24 hr and examined at intervals up to 85 days postexposure (PE). Ninety percent (9 of 10) of these oysters were positive on day 1 PE using mouse bioassay. Tissue cysts were observed in 1 of 2 mice fed tissue from oysters exposed 21 days previously. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 2 of 3 mice fed oysters that had been exposed 85 days previously. In another study, groups of 10 oysters in 76-L aquaria were exposed to 1 × 105, 5 × 104, or 1 × 104 sporulated T. gondii oocysts for 24 hr and then processed for bioassay in mice. All oysters exposed to 1 × 105 oocysts were infected, and 60% of oysters exposed to 5 × 104 oocysts were positive when fed to mice. The studies with exposure to 1 × 104 oocysts were repeated twice, and 10 and 25% of oysters were positive when fed to mice. These studies indicate that T. gondii can survive for several months in oysters and that oysters can readily remove T. gondii oocysts from seawater. Infected filter feeders may serve as a source of T. gondii for marine mammals and possibly humans.
David S. Lindsay, Marina V. Collins, Sheila M. Mitchell, Carly N. Wetch, Alexa C. Rosypal, George J. Flick, Anne M. Zajac, Alan Lindquist and J. P. Dubey "SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN EASTERN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA)," Journal of Parasitology 90(5), (1 October 2004). https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-296R
Received: 9 December 2003; Accepted: 1 February 2004; Published: 1 October 2004
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