The nematode Camallanus hypophthalmichthys Dogel and Akhmerov, 1959 is redescribed from specimens collected from the intestine of the bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, from Liangzihu Lake (Yangtze River basin), Hubei Province, central China. The light and scanning electron microscopical examination made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known species and to confirm its validity. The main specific features of C. hypophthalmichthys distinguishing it from the most similar Camallanus spp. is the presence of 3 small caudal processes on the male tail tip, 13–16 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface of the valve of the buccal capsule, and the arrangement of preanal and postanal genital papillae in the male. This finding represents a new host record, the first record of this parasite in the Yangtze River basin, and the first documented record of C. hypophthalmichthys from China. Camallanus hypophthalmichthys is considered a specific intestinal parasite of fishes of the cyprinid Hypophthalmichthyinae.
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