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1 June 2005 ISOLATION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CHICKENS IN GRENADA, WEST INDIES
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Abstract

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 102 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Grenada was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 53 (52%) chickens with titers of 1:5 in 6, 1:10 in 4, 1:20 in 4, 1:40 in 4, 1:80 in 15, 1:160 in 9, 1: 320 in 5, 1:640 in 4, and 1:1,280 or greater in 2. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 43 seropositive chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or greater were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissues of each of 10 chickens with titers of 1:5 and 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice. Tissues from the remaining 49 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 4 T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts; they did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated from 35 of 43 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or greater; from the hearts, brains, and pectoral muscles of 2, hearts and brains of 20, from the hearts alone of 11, and brains alone of 2. T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 10 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10. All 36 T. gondii isolates were avirulent for mice. Genotyping of these 36 isolates using polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that 29 were Type III, 5 were Type I, 1 was Type II, and 1 had both Type I and Type III. Genetically, the isolates from Grenada were different from those from the United States; Type II was the predominant type from the United States. Phenotypically, all isolates from Grenada were avirulent for mice, whereas those from Brazil were mouse-virulent. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Grenada, West Indies.

J. P. Dubey, M. I. Bhaiyat, C. de Allie, C. N L. Macpherson, R. N. Sharma, C. Sreekumar, M. C B. Vianna, S. K. Shen, O. C H. Kwok, K. B. Miska, D. E. Hill, and T. Lehmann "ISOLATION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CHICKENS IN GRENADA, WEST INDIES," Journal of Parasitology 91(3), (1 June 2005). https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-463R
Received: 3 September 2004; Accepted: 1 September 2004; Published: 1 June 2005
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