Nematodes (1 male and numerous females) of the Philometridae were collected from the mesentery of 2 species of pimelodid catfishes, Calophysus macropterus and Perrunichthys perruno, from the Amazon River basin (fishmarket in Iquitos, Loreto District) in Peru. A detailed study of their morphology (including scanning electron microscopy) and a reexamination of the type and voucher specimens of Philometra amazonica Travassos, 1960, from Brazilian catfishes confirmed that they belong to this species and that Philometra (Alinema) alii Rasheed, 1963 is its junior synonym. Because of some marked morphological peculiarities of this species (presence of minute peribuccal sclerotized formations, a functional vagina and vulva in gravid female, and structure of the male tail), the validity of an independent genus, Alinema Rasheed, 1963, is confirmed, to which this species is transferred as Alinema amazonicum (Travassos, 1960) n. comb. This is the first record of this parasite from Peru, and P. perruno represents its new host record.
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