Huffmanela moraveci n. sp. (Nematode: Trichosomoididae) is described from the skin of fins and gills of the silversides Odontesthes smitti Lahille, 1949, and Odontesthes nigricans Richardson, 1848 (Pisces: Atheriniformes), from southwestern Atlantic coast, on the basis of the morphology of adults and eggs found in the host tissues. Huffmanela moraveci n. sp. can be distinguished from Huffmanela carcharini, H. banningi, H. japonica, H. mexicana, H. paronai, H. schouteni, H. shikokuensis, H. branchialis, H. filamentosa, H. ossicola, and H. lata by the size and shape of the eggs. The adult stage of H. moraveci n. sp. can be differentiated from H. huffmani and H. canadensis by the position of the nerve ring and by the total esophagus length/body length ratio. Huffmanela moraveci n. sp. also differs from H. huffmani by the presence of bacillary bands and by the body length. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela in South America, the first report of a species of Huffmanela with Odontesthes spp. as host, and the third known adult form in the genus.
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