The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of the parasite's oocysts in soil because chicken feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (64%) of 64 chickens from Ghana, 24 (24.4%) of 98 chickens from Indonesia, 10 (12.5%) of 80 chickens from Italy, 6 (30%) of 20 chickens from Poland, and 81 (24.2%) of 330 chickens from Vietnam. Hearts and brains of chickens were bioassayed for T. gondii. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 2 chickens from Ghana, 1 chicken from Indonesia, 3 chickens from Italy, 2 chickens from Poland, and 1 chicken from Vietnam. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from 9 chickens were genotyped using 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. A total of 7 genotypes was identified; the 3 isolates from chickens from Italy were clonal type II, and the others were nonclonal. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from animals from these countries.
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