In the paper, we explored the intra- and interspecific evolutionary variation among species of Camallanus collected from different fish species in various regions of China. We determined the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) sequences of these nematodes. The divergence (uncorrected p-distance) of ITS1, ITS2, and ITS rDNA data sets confirmed 2 valid species of Camallanus in China, i.e., C. cotti and C. hypophthalmichthys. The 2 species were distinguished not only by their different morphologies and host ranges but also by a tetranucleotide microsatellite (TTGC)n present in the ITS1 region of C. cotti. Phylogenetic analyses of the nematodes disclosed 2 main clades, corresponding to different individuals of C. cotti and C. hypophthalmichthys from different fish species in various geographical locations, although the interior nodes of each clade received poor support.
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