Hamulonema gen. nov. is proposed for Teladorsagia hamata and Ostertagia kenyensis in the ostertagiine nematode fauna found in artiodactyl hosts from Africa. Monomorphic species representing this genus are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical and parallel synlophe in males and females, a 2-2-1 bursal formula, an accessory bursal membrane that is strongly cuticularized and reduced, a strongly reduced dorsal lobe and ray, and robust spicules with a simple, weakly pointed, ventral process, and curved, hooklike dorsal process. Species referred to Hamulonema nov. gen. are immediately distinguished from those of Camelostrongylus, Longistrongylus, Marshallagia, Orloffia, Ostertagia, and Pseudomarshallagia in which the bursal formula is 2-1-2 in males. Hamulonema nov. gen. is distinguished from those genera having a 2-2-1 bursa, including Africanastrongylus, Cervicaprastrongylus, Hyostrongylus, Mazamastrongylus, Sarwaria, Spiculopteragia, and Teladorsagia by the structure of the synlophe, bursa, genital cone, “0” and “7” papillae, dorsal lobe, and spicules in specific instances. In the global fauna, 4 of 14 ostertagiine genera are endemic to Africa. African genera may represent morphologically divergent and discrete or historically isolated lineages reflecting a pattern of geographic and host colonization as a driver for diversification since the Miocene.
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