Libyostrongylus is composed of 3 species, L. douglassii, L. dentatus, and L. magnus, which are differentiated based on the morphology of the adults worms. Of these, only the first 2 species have been described in Brazilian ostriches (Struthio camelus). There are very few citations regarding the occurrence of L. dentatus, having been reported only in North America and Brazil, while L. douglassii is distributed worldwide. Reports on differences in the localization of Libyostrongylus species inside the proventriculus are not available. Thirty proventriculi were collected and examined for the presence and location of the nematodes with the aid of a stereomicroscope. The collected parasites were conditioned separately, according to their sites of infection, in plates containing 0.09% saline solution. The worms were identified based on morphologic characters. All the examined proventriculi were parasitized by L. douglassii and L. dentatus. However, L. douglassii was observed under the koilin layer, while L. dentatus was inserted and attached in the koilin layer. Thus, the present study identifies different sites of infection by the 2 species of Libyostrongylus found in Brazil.
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