Helminth infections are generally characterized by dominant T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response polarization and have been shown in some cases to modulate immune responses to vaccines, i.e., the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. The filarial nematode secreted product ES-62 has been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities, such as the ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory/Th1 immune responses and to have therapeutic potential against diseases associated with such responses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of ES-62 to modulate the immune response to purified protein derivative (PPD), a component of the BCG vaccine designed to provoke a Th1 response. Overall, the results show that ES-62 was not capable of modulating the Th1 immune response induced by PPD, demonstrating that the helminth product, if employed therapeutically, is unlikely to interfere with the protective effects of the vaccine.
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