A new species of arhythmacanthid acanthocephalan, Heterosentis martini n. sp., parasitic in the Argentinean sandperch Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the coasts of Argentina is described. Heterosentis martini n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, each with 7–8 hooks, consisting of 1 medium apical and 3 larger sub-apical hooks with root, and 3–4 smaller, basal, curved hooks with rudimentary roots and spines in both ventral and dorsal regions of the body. The most similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) Van Cleave, 1931, and Heterosentis brasiliensis Vieira, Felizardo and Luque, 2009, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by having only 3–5 (more frequently 4) hooks in each row, with only the anterior hook large and bearing a developed root. Heterosentis brasiliensis differs from the new species by possessing 2 sub-apical hooks in each row (instead of 3), similar body length but shorter proboscis, and trunk spines restricted to the ventral surface of body.
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