Parasitic lice have been valuable informants of their host's evolutionary history because they complete their entire life cycle on the host and move between hosts primarily through direct host-to-host contact. Therefore, lice are confined to their hosts both in ecological and evolutionary time. Lice on great apes have been studied to examine details of their host's evolutionary history; however, species of Pedicinus, which parasitize the Old World monkeys, are less well known. We sampled lice from 2 groups of red colobus (Procolobus spp.) in Kibale National Park in Uganda and from red colobus and black and white colobus (Procolobus polycomos) in Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. We used next-generation sequencing data analysis and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) genome to search for microsatellites for population genetic studies of Pedicinus lice. The 96 primer sets for microsatellite loci designed from the human body louse genome failed to amplify microsatellites in Pedicinus sp., perhaps due to the fast rate of evolution in parasitic lice. Of 63 microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing data analysis of Pedicinus sp., 12 were variable among populations and 9 were variable within a single population. Our results suggest that these loci will be useful across the genus Pedicinus. We found that the lice in Uganda are not structured according to their hosts' social group; rather, 2 non-interbreeding populations of lice were found on both groups of red colobus. Because direct host-to-host contact is usually required for lice to move among hosts, these lice could be useful for identification and study of behavioral interactions between primate species.