A new species of Grillotia was found from teleosts and elasmobranchs along the Patagonian shelf off Argentina. Grillotia patagonica n. sp. is described from plerocerci recovered from gadiform (Moridae) and perciform fish (Cheilodactylidae, Bovichtidae, and Nototheniidae) and adults from the smallthorn sand skate Psammobatis rudis (Rajiformes, Rajidae). Grillotia patagonica most closely resembles species in the Grillotia erinaceus species complex (viz., Grillotia borealis, Grillotia brayi, Grillotia dollfusi, G. erinaceus, and Grillotia musculara) in having 4 hooks per principal row and 2 or more intercalary rows in the metabasal region, a band of hooks on the external surface of the tentacle, numerous proglottids, a hermaphroditic sac, internal and external seminal vesicles, uterine pore, and attachment of the retractor muscle in the mid region of the tentacular bulb. Grillotia patagonica n. sp. is unique among all valid species in the genus by having the hooks on the first row reduced and of a different shape from the rest of the metabasal rows. Despite the diversity of elasmobranchs that are available as definitive hosts for species in Grillotia, most species (10/14) are oioxenous or mesostenoxenous. The specificity for the last intermediate host is variable among species of Grillotia, with most plerocerci being oioxenous (5/15) or euryxenous (8/15). Host specificity is higher for the adult stage in the definitive host (mean HSS = 4.07) than for the plerocerci (mean HSS = 7.30). All the species with oioxenous specificity (either larvae or adults) have limited geographic distributions. Some previous records of species of Grillotia from fishes caught off Argentina require reconsideration, i.e., G. erinaceus, Grillotia minuta (reported as Grillotia bothridiopunctata) and G. borealis. An updated host–parasite checklist for the valid species of Grillotia is also presented along with new host records for Grillotia carvajalregorum.