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1 April 2013 Inactivation Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in a Swine Waste Lagoon and Spray Field
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Abstract
Because of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans, some Cryptosporidium spp. have become a public health concern. Commercial swine operations can be a source of this protozoan parasite. Although the species distribution of Cryptosporidium is likely dominated by Cryptosporidium suis, a fraction may be comprised of other Cryptosporidium species infectious to humans such as Cryptosporidium parvum. To better understand the survival dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp., oocysts associated with swine operations, 2 experiments were performed to determine die-off rates of C. parvum oocysts in a swine waste lagoon (2009 and 2010) and its spray field (2010 and 2011). Sentinel chambers containing a lagoon effluent suspension of C. parvum oocysts were submerged in the lagoon, and triplicate chambers were removed over time; oocysts were extracted and assayed for viability. For comparative purposes, inactivation rates of Ascaris suum eggs contained in sentinel chambers were also determined. For 2 spray field experiments, air-dried and sieved surface soil was placed in sentinel chambers, hydrated, and inoculated with a lagoon effluent suspension of C. parvum oocysts. Sentinel chambers and control oocysts in PBS contained in microcentrifuge tubes were buried 1.5 cm below the soil surface in 3 blocks. Triplicate chambers and controls were removed over time; oocysts were extracted and assayed for viability. Based on the first order decay equation, days to reach 99% die-off (T99) were determined. T99-values determined for the 2 lagoon experiments were 13.1 and 20.1 wk, respectively. A T99-value for C. parvum in the spray field was significantly longer at 38.0 wk than the control oocysts in PBS at 29.0 wk. The waste lagoon and spray field system of manure management at this large-scale farrowing operation appeared to reduce the load of C. parvum oocysts before they can be hydrologically transported off the operation and reduces their likelihood of contaminating surface waters and threatening public health.
Michael B. Jenkins, Janice L. Liotta and Dwight D. Bowman "Inactivation Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in a Swine Waste Lagoon and Spray Field," Journal of Parasitology 99(2), (1 April 2013). https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-3193.1
Received: 8 May 2012; Accepted: 1 September 2012; Published: 1 April 2013
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