The Iberian Peninsula, and primarily Spain, includes about 50% of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in the western Palearctic. This endangered species has experienced a sharp decline in southern Europe since the end of the nineteenth century and has become extinct in most of its former distribution area. In this paper we report the Egyptian Vulture population trend between 1988–2005, and the number of breeding pairs and reproductive performance, 2003–2005, in Castellón province of eastern Spain. The number of breeding pairs increased from one pair in 1989 to 12 in 2005, probably due to the absence of poisoning and direct persecution in the Castellón province. From 2003–2005, we observed 34 breeding attempts at 23 different breeding sites. Mean chicks fledged per occupied territory was 0.91 ± 0.08, mean chicks fledged per successful pair was 1.20 ± 0.09, and mean breeding success was 0.76 ± 0.07 successful pairs per breeding pair.
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