The aim of this study was to predict the distribution and movement of populations of the tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae), in the wet and dry seasons and to analyze the impact of the use of mono-pyramidal traps on fly populations in the Kogo focus in 2004 and 2005. Three Glossina species are present in Kogo: Glossina palpalis palpalis, major HAT vector in West-Central Africa, Glossina caliginea, and Glossina tabaniformis. The apparent density (AD) G. p. palpalis clearly fell from 1.23 tsetse/trap/day in July 2004 to 0.27 in December 2005. A significant reduction in the mean AD for this species was noted between seasons and years. The diversity of Glossina species was relatively low at all the sampling points; G. p. palpalis clearly predominated over the other species and significantly dropped as a consequence of control activities. The predictive models generated for the seasonal AD showed notable differences not only in the density but in the distribution of the G. p. palpalis population between the rainy and dry season. The mono-pyramidal traps have proven to be effective instrument for reducing the density of the tsetse fly populations, although given that the Kogo trypanosomiasis focus extends from the southern Equatorial Guinea to northern Gabon, interventions need to be planned on a larger scale, involving both countries, to guarantee the long-term success of control.
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