Most of South America's diverse avian fossil record is derived from terrestrial deposits. A Late Miocene to Early Pliocene marine avian assemblage is reported here from the Bahía Iglesa Formation of north-central Chile. Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Pelagornithidae, Diomedeidae, and Spheniscidae reported here are the earliest occurrences in Chile. The presence of the Chilean spheniscid penguin may prove significant in the taxonomy and radiation of the genus Spheniscus.
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