Lungfish of the tooth-plated lineage, both fossil and living, may be affected by alterations in the permanent tooth plates and associated jaw bones as they grow. In a few taxa, the unusual structures may be so common that they must be considered as normal for those species, or as a variation of the normal condition. In others the condition is rare, affecting only a few individuals. Variations, or anomalies, may appear in the growing tissues of the lungfish tooth plate at any time in the life cycle, although they usually appear early in development. Once the changes appear, they persist in the dentition. The altered structures include divided or intercalated ridges, short ridge anomaly, changes in the shape, number and position of cusps, pattern loss, and fused ridges or cusps. Criteria used to distinguish alteration from normal conditions are the incidence of the character in the population, the associated changes in the jaw bone, and the position of the altered structure in the tooth plate. The occurrence of similar changes across a wide range of different species suggests that they may have a genetic cause, especially when they are a rare occurrence in most taxa, but common enough to be a part of the normal variation in others. Prevalence of related anomalies throughout the history of the group suggests that dipnoans of the tooth-plated lineage are closely related, despite significant differences in morphology, microstructure, and function of the dentitions.