A medium-sized, counterclockwise spiral-horned antelope from the late Miocene (Turolian) locality of Perivolaki, Greece, is described and compared with several late Neogene and Quaternary taxa from Eurasia. The new form can be distinguished in several cranial and horn-core features and is the basis of a new genus and species: Pheraios chryssomallos. Pheraios is characterized by a flat cranial roof smoothly angled on the face, wide nasals, raised frontals, relatively long face, wide and low occipital facing posteriorly, low-crowned teeth, large premolars, and weakly twisted, very openly spiraled, and strongly laterally divergent horn-cores. Cladistic analysis based on 46 cranial features supports the close relationship of Pheraios to the African tragelaphins. Interpretation of the characters in comparison with fossil and extant Tragelaphini leads us to recognize Pheraios as a late Miocene tragelaphin stem taxon, necessitating a discussion of the origin and biogeography of this predominantly African group. We suggest that the common ancestry of Pheraios and of African tragelaphins occurred before 8 Ma, outside Africa.
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