Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed on the cranium of the horned theropod Carnotaurus sastrei to assess how it would have performed mechanically during biting and frontal butting. This technique proved to be an effective tool to provide a better understanding of the cranial functional morphology of C. sastrei. The analyses indicated that the jaw-closing musculature of C. sastrei would have played a key role in diminishing the stress level on the cranium during biting, particularly for the braincase. Force analyses show that C. sastrei would have had a comparatively weak (and faster than Allosaurus fragillis) muscle-driven bite. The finite element analyses also provide quantitative evidence to suggest that the cranium of C. sastrei could have withstood high velocity impacts to its teeth resulting from a hypothetical hatchet-like biting mode, but could not have endured severe, rapid frontal blows during agonistic encounters.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.