The genus Hoplophorus is one of the most distinctive glyptodonts from the Quaternary deposits of the intertropical area of Brazil. In this paper, we redescribe cranial and postcranial elements and describe some new tarsal elements belonging to the species Hoplophorus euphractus from caves from Minas Gerais state, southern Brazil, in order to provide a better diagnosis for the genus. The material examined shows several striking, distinctive characters relative to Neosclerocalyptus, besides those previously reported, reinforcing the validity of Hoplophorus. On the other hand, we find that the postcrania of Hoplophorus presents striking, unreported resemblances with Panochthus (e.g., more lateromedially elongated cuboid facet of navicular and caudal tube with large lateral figures separated from the terminal ones by a wide space). In order to infer the relationships of Hoplophorus and to reevaluate the monophyly of the tribe Hoplophorini and the subfamily Hoplophorinae (in which Hoplophorus was previously allocated), we carried out a cladistic analysis of 18 taxa, including 13 glyptodont genera and five cingulate outgroups, scored for 151 cranial, dental, and postcranial characters. The most parsimonious tree shows that Hoplophorinae and Hoplophorini are both paraphyletic and has Hoplophorus as the sister group to Panochthus based mostly on synapomorphies of the caudal tube. We propose: (1) restricting the definition of the tribe Hoplophorini to the lineage represented by Hoplophorus, making it the sister group to Panochthini within Panochthinae (= Hoplophorus Panochthus); and (2) a new subfamily, Neosclerocalyptinae, represented by Neosclerocalyptus, the sister group to Panochthinae.
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