Dipodid rodent fossils from Gashunyinadege at ∼17 Ma, one of the oldest Neogene localities in central Nei Mongol, China, include six genera (Heterosminthus, Plesiosminthus, Litodonomys, Sinodonomys, gen. nov., Omoiosicista, gen. nov., and Sicista) and nine species, including four new species (P. vegrandis, sp. nov., L. minimus, sp. nov., S. simplex, sp. nov., and O. fui, sp. nov.). The high diversity and abundance of dipodid rodents in Gashunyinadege indicate the evolution of basal dipodids was centered in Nei Mongol. Omoiosicista is described on the basis of eight isolated teeth and characterized by possessing one autapomorphy. This new taxon shares seven synapomorphies with Sicista, suggesting Sicista is the closest relative.
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Vol. 30 • No. 6