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1 November 2010 Embryonic Skeletal Anatomy of the Sauropodomorph Dinosaur Massospondylus from the Lower Jurassic of South Africa
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Two embryonic skeletons preserved inside thin-shelled eggs of a partially preserved clutch from the Upper Elliot Formation (Lower Jurassic) of South Africa have been attributed to the sauropodomorph dinosaur Massospondylus carinatus. A virtually complete skeleton is exposed in right lateral view, with the slightly telescoped skull and several cervical vertebrae extending beyond the eggshell. A second, partial skeleton has a skull preserved in dorsal view. The embryos have proportionately very large skulls, with the broad skull table formed by wide parietals and frontals. The wide posterolateral wing of the frontal separates the postorbital from contact with the parietal. The embryos have short rather than elongated cervical vertebrae, with tall rather than low neural arches. The large forelimbs are only slightly shorter than the hind limbs, which suggests an obligatory quadrupedal posture for the hatchlings. This pattern may represent an ontogenetic constraint related to the large size of the head and horizontally oriented neck. Similarities between the embryonic and post-hatchling specimens include the slenderness of the lower jaw and slight ventral curvature of the symphyseal portion of the dentary, the large supraorbital process of the prefrontal, and the tall antorbital and infratemporal fenestrae. There are 10 cervical, 14 dorsal, and three sacral vertebrae. The large distal claw-bearing phalanx of manual digit 1 is longer than any other phalangeal element of either manus or pes. The embryos of Massospondylus carinatus represent the oldest dinosaurian embryos known to date.

© 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
Robert R. Reisz, David C. Evans, Hans-Dieter Sues, and Diane Scott "Embryonic Skeletal Anatomy of the Sauropodomorph Dinosaur Massospondylus from the Lower Jurassic of South Africa," Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(6), 1653-1665, (1 November 2010).
Received: 12 January 2010; Accepted: 1 June 2010; Published: 1 November 2010

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