I describe a new fossil species of the extant anuran genus Lepidobatrachus from late Miocene-early Pliocene sediments of central Argentina. This species was erroneously attributed to the living species L. laevis in prior studies. However, reanalysis of the fossil material demonstrated that some anatomical structures, as well as their taxonomic significance, were misinterpreted. The description and comparative analysis presented here demonstrate that this specimen represents a new fossil species of Lepidobatrachus. Although it possesses most of the possible synapomorphies of Lepidobatrachus, some features of the architecture of the skull of the specimen, specifically the relationships of the palatal surface of the maxilla with the surrounding bones, resemble the skull of other ceratophryid genera. Additionally, the new species differs from all ceratophryids in the absence of a supraorbital shelf. The paleoenvironmental significance of this discovery is also discussed.
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