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Antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was present in the sera of 10 of 25 species of game animals from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda during 1960-1973. Prevalence of antibody varied considerably between, but not within, species.
Seventeen hematologic values of the American Bison (Bison bison) from five areas of the United States were determined using standard techniques. The means of the principal blood measurements for all bison were 10.08 ± 1.43 million erythrocytes/mm3, 8.03 ±1.41 thousand leukocytes/mm8, 16.92 ± 1.43 gm % hemoglobin and 47.11 ± 4.06% hematocrit. There was a significant variation (P < 0.05) among age groups of males for erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. However, no significant variation between female age groups or sexes was found for any of the blood cell values determined.
Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and uric acid levels were measured in lead-poisoned Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although plasma glucose levels were only slightly elevated, uric acid was significantly higher and free fatty acids were significantly lower. Altered plasma levels were attributed to increased protein catabolism and perhaps renal disfunction. Plasma level of growth hormone and prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Growth hormone remained unchanged while prolactin was unusually high. The increased prolactin levels may reflect an effort to stabilize free fatty acids.
In April, 1973, an acute disease with a high rate of mortality appeared in a flock of 233 ducks and geese at a private game farm. Most of the flock (220) were black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mortality was restricted to them. In May, the remaining live birds were placed in isolation but mortality continued in black ducks and occurred in other species. The overall rate of mortality for black ducks was 93% and the case fatality rate was 97%. No hemorrhaging from either the bill or vent was observed. The most commonly observed gross lesions were extensive fibrino-necrotic plaques covering the mucosal surface of the esophagus, posterior colon and cloaca. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on visceral organs, particularly the heart, were also common. Virus isolation was attempted from tissues of three black ducks. Duck plague virus was isolated from liver, kidney, spleen and intestine of each. Sixteen black ducks survived the outbreak. Seven of these birds had significant levels of neutralizing antibody to duck plague virus.
Hunter-killed ducks were examined in North Dakota from 1969 through 1972 for prevalence of macroscopically detectable cysts of Sarcocystis. Fifty-seven of 632 (9%) adult dabbling ducks and 1 of 420 (0.24%) juveniles were infected. Sarcocystis was not detected in 169 adult and 91 juvenile diving ducks.
Fungal, bacterial and malarial infections, as well as malnutrition caused heavy mortality in a group of wild-trapped canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) held in 10 × 3 × 2 m open water pens. Deaths occurred between 21 and 158 days after confinement and were associated with infections of Aspergillus fumigatus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Plasmodium sp. Infection and mortality was believed to result from reduced resistance associated with confinement. Fourteen canvasbacks released onto large ponds survived throughout the period during which the penned birds died.
Leptospires of the hebdomadis sero-group and related to sejroe serotype, were isolated from the kidney of a vole (Apodemus sylvaticus) by direct culture as well as by animal inoculation. Sera of the vole from which leptospires were isolated, and serologic specimens from 1372 other small mammals, were negative for lepto-spiral agglutinins.
Marked dental disfigurement and abnormal tooth wear patterns were observed in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) taken from an area near an industrial fluoride source in northwestern Washington. Fluoride levels in the bones of these deer were from 10 to 35 times higher than levels in the bones of normal animals. These levels are similar to those associated with fluorosis of cattle.
In northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) up to at least 4 years of age there is virtually 100% prevalence of infestation with the nasal mite Orthohalarachne attenuata. Although clinical observations and gross examination indicate that the condition is not serious, some erosion and inflammation of the nasal turbinates and nasopharynx were seen associated with mites in histological sections.
A trematode from the family Nasitrematidae Yamaguti 1951 was found adhered to the round window in the inner ear of a Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The possibility that parasites could be responsible for changes in acoustic behavior and hearing loss is discussed.
From 1959 through 1968, lungs from 124 Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from the Sun River herd in western Montana were examined foT lungworm infections. All lungs were infected with Protostrongylus stilesi and 104 (84%) contained concurrent infections of P. stilesi and P. rushi. Significant correlations were observed between levels of lungworm infection and total rainfall during April, May, and June of each year. An explanation of this in terms of terrestrial snail (intermediate host) populations and a suggestion for the possible use of these data in developing a predictive model for forecasting lungworm levels for use in bighorn sheep management are given.
Anti-Brucella agglutinins were found in 5 of 53 (9.4%) vampire bats Desmodus rotundus, captured in the State of Bahia, Brasil. Two specimens of Diphylla ecaudata were negative. Fifty specimens of the small monkey, Callithrix penicillata, were also negative.
Leptospiruria with persistent microscopic agglutinating antibody titers were maintained in gerbils that became carriers following experimental infection with Leptospira grippotyphosa, strain F 4397. Leptospires were isolated from kidneys of a gerbil which died 28 months after experimental inoculation.
A total of 647 birds of 146 species representing 41 families from localities in Kenya, Tanzania and Zaire were examined for blood parasites. A total of 242 (37.2%) birds harbored either single or multiple infections of Haemoproteus (16%), Leucocytozoon (14%), Plasmodium (5.4%), Trypanosoma (1.7%), microfilaria (2.9%) or a variety of babesioids and haemogregarines (4.3%). Occurrence of blood parasites was greatest in Zaire and least in Kenya; the occurrence of the different genera varied markedly between areas and between bird families.
Ixodes scapularis Say was the only species of tick found on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, collected at Long Point, Ontario from October 1972 to August 1973. Adults were most abundant from September 1972 to April 1973. Larvae were found throughout the study period except during February. Nymphs were scarce during winter months but fairly common during spring and summer. Most adults were found on the neck and shoulders. Larvae occurred mainly on lower regions of the body and nymphs mainly on the head, shoulders, forelegs and brisket.
Blood films and selected tissue sections from 270 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) from 18 sites in 11 southeastern states were examined for Hepatozoon griseisciuri. This parasite was found in 110 (41%) squirrels from 17 of the 18 sites. Data suggested transmission of the parasite apparently occurs throughout the year and increases from spring to late summer. The infection was more prevalent in subadults and adults than in juveniles. Schizogonic stages were found only in the lungs, suggesting this organ is a major site of schizogony. Pathologic changes associated with H. griseisciuri infection were thickening of alveolar walls, eosinophil infiltration, pulmonary congestion and atelectasis.
Furunculosis was induced in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, by experimental inoculation with Aeromonas salmonicida. Total protein, hemoglobin, sialic acid, fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, inorganic-phosphorus, acid-soluble phosphorus, and lipid-phosphorus decreased in the blood of the infected fish while amino acids, urea, total creatinine, ammonia, and glucose increased. Pyruvic acid, lactic acid, and ascorbic acid values showed no significant change.
Fourteen species of fungus were isolated from the lower digestive tract of 69 of 80 pigeons. Sixteen pigeons had concurrent isolations while two harbored three species. Fungi isolated were Allescheria boydii, Aspergillus spp., Candida krusei, Chrysosporium spp., Geotrichum candidum, Mucor spp., Paeciliomyces spp., Penicilium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Streptomyces spp., and Trichosporon cutaneum. There was no apparent evidence that these fungi were associated with clinical disease in any of the pigeons.
In preliminary studies with Sarcocystis from bovine (Bos taurus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), a coccidia-free laboratory dog (Canis familiaris) and captive coyote (Canis latrans) were fed flesh from a local Sarcocystis-infected bovine and later fed flesh from an infected mule deer from Eastern Oregon. Sporocysts were passed in the feces of both canine hosts 10-15 days after ingestion of infected meat. There was a statistical difference in the size of sporocysts derived from bovine and deer. It was concluded that the Sarcocystis from bovine and mule deer probably constitute distinct species with a life cycle dependent on the respective ruminant host and a canine host.
Adult Dioctophyma renale occupied the enlarged renal pelvis of the right kidney of naturally infected mink. Lesions in the kidney parenchyma consisted of connective tissue proliferation in the interstitial tissue, tubular atrophy and fibrosis, and periglomerular fibrosis. The luminal surface of the renal pelvis wall was formed of numerous papillae covered with transitional epithelium. The nematodes in the lumen were bathed in an albuminous fluid containing red blood cells, epithelial cells and D. renale eggs. The left (uninfected) kidney was 60% larger than the left kidney of normal mink.
A Capillaria sp. was recovered from the kidneys of 28 (93.3%) of 30 small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctus) collected in St. Lucia, West Indies. The nematodes were embedded within distended pelvic fornices of the kidney and surrounded by accumulations of eggs. A chronic, low-level inflammation of the transitional epithelium was characterized by hyperplasia, giant cells surrounding embedded eggs and a plasmacytic infiltration. This is the first record of a capillarid nematode from the kidney of the mongoose.
Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis due to Emmonsia crescens was diagnosed in three of six Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklini) captured in Rochester, central Alberta, Canada in the summer of 1971, and in one of 240 pikas (Ochotona princeps) collected in southwestern Alberta in 1969. Granulomas measuring 0.5 to 1 mm in diameter were found in both lungs. These granulomas contained adiaspores measuring 60 to 400 μm in diameter. The disease was not found in six Franklin's ground squirrels collected in 1964, nor in 10 white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), one porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), and 270 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) from the Rochester area. Lungs from an additional 17 hares from Alaska and 25 from New Brunswick and 96 pikas from Colorado were also examined but no adiaspores were found.
Nodular lesions on the fins of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, from Casco Bay, Maine, were identified as lymphocystis disease. Hypertrophied, encapsulated connective tissue cells contained cytoplasmic inclusions composed of icosahedral virus particles. The winter flounder is a new host for lymphocystis disease and is the second flatfish in the western North Atlantic to have the disease.
Twenty percent of the California sea lion pups born on San Miguel Island die due to premature parturition. Specimens collected from premature-partus animals resulted in recovery of a virus, San Miguel Sea Lion Virus, indistinguishable from Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus, and Leptospira pomona from some of the premature cows and pups. The age range of 10 females delivering healthy pups in June was 10-14 years. With one exception, the ages in 10 aborting females was 6-8 years. The p,p′- DDE levels of the premature parturient cows' blubber and liver were 7.6 and 4.8 times greater, respectively, than corresponding tissue concentrations in the full-term animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls residues were 4.4 and 3.8 times greater in aborting animals' blubber and liver than in the same tissues of full-term sea lions. Premature-partus females had tissue imbalances of mercury, selenium, cadmium and bromine. Pathology, parasitology, serum enzyme and hormone results are also presented. These data suggest an interrelationship of disease agents and environmental contaminants as the cause of premature parturition.
A survey of the sources of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin possibly utilized as food by aquatic birds in an epizootic area of avian botulism in northern Utah showed that living aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates normally found in close association with dead, decomposing birds commonly carried the toxin. Of 461 samples associated with 21 species of avian carcasses, 198 were toxin-positive. Invertebrate species not normally scavengers of vertebrate tissues were less commonly and less highly toxic, particularly when captured 30 cm or more from a carcass; six of 237 samples of such aquatic invertebrates contained low-level toxin. Of the species tested, blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae) were the most consistently and highly toxic, although others, particularly adult and larval stages of several species of beetles (Coleoptera), contained toxin at levels probably significant in the epizootiology of the disease. An estimated 0.05 to 0.25 g of the most toxic fly larvae or 15 g of the most toxic beetles tested carried a mediam lethal dose for an adult mallard duck. Examination of stomach contents of aquatic birds dead of botulism showed that some had consumed invertebrates.