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Mycobacterium marinum was isolated from lesions of two Bufonidae. Microscopic examination of tissues collected at necropsy of six Bufonidae revealed lesions containing acid-fast bacteria in the liver, lung, kidney, intestine and skin. Acid-fast bacteria occurred in alveoli and airways of lung and in lumen of intestine. Isolates obtained on mycobacteriologic examination were identified by tests for photochromogenicity, nitrate reduction and by seroagglutination tests.
Eye swabs for attempted isolation and identification of Moraxella bovis were taken from 293 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the fall of 1979. Moraxella bovis was not isolated from any of the deer sampled and examination of the corneal surfaces did not reveal any evidence of prior keratitis.
A study was made on the efficacy of a commercial ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer in reducing the number of bacteria and yeasts in a saline, closed ystem marine mammal complex. UV irradiation was effective in lowering bacterial counts in the effluent of the unit (>75% reduction), but bacteria in more remote parts of the water system reached levels equal to or greater than pre-UV counts. Yeast reduction was considerably less, and a trend similar to that of the bacteria was observed in remote sections of the water system. It is concluded that UV irradiation is of limited value in the disinfection of marine mammal water. Factors contributing to the poor performance of the sterilizer were the long recycle time of the water and lack of a residual effect.
Free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were trapped in southwestern Wisconsin. Fox sera were tested to determine the prevalence of antibody for five different Leptospira interrogans serovars, canine distemper virus (CDV), infectious canine hepatitis virus (ICHV), and Franciscella tularensis infections. Grippotyphosa was the most prevalent leptospiral serovar antibody observed. Twenty-five of 53 (47%) red foxes and 11 of 36 (31%) gray foxes had specific antibodies to grippotyphosa. Juvenile foxes had geometric mean antibody titers to grippotyphosa significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the adults of both species. CDV antibody was detected in sera of red foxes only. Six of 57 (11%) red foxes had CDV antibody. ICHV antibody was detected in 2 of 57 (3%) red foxes and 3 of 32 (9%) gray foxes. Antibody to F. tularensis was not detected in any fox sera.
The efficacy of the standard plate agglutination (SPT), buffered Brucella antigen rapid card (BBA), rivanol (Riv) and complement fixation (CFT) tests was statistically evaluated and correlated with known brucellosis infections in elk. Low titers on the SPT were detected in artificially exposed mature cow elk 2 weeks postinoculation and other tests began detecting antibodies at 3 weeks. Titers on all tests were detected as long as 4 years postinoculation. Serologic response was similar in artificially and naturally infected cows. Bulls did not maintain serologic titers as long as cows. The SPT at 1:25 or higher most frequently detected Brucella antibodies in infected elk, while the SPT at 1:100 or more least frequently detected antibodies. The percent of elk reacting at 1:100 or greater on the SPT declined rapidly after 6 months postinoculation. Combinations of any 2 of the 4 tests used had close agreement in concurrently identifying infected elk. The CFT correctly identified the greatest number (93%) of elk which were culture positive at necropsy and CFT titers persisted longer than those of the other tests. A CFT reaction persisted longer (average 10.7 weeks) than that of any other test in calves that demonstrated postnatal titers. The serologic responses of calves which acquired active infections were similar to adults. Criteria for identifying seropositive elk are discussed.
Histologic examination of kidney tissue from a morbid coyote (Canis latrans) suggested a leptospiral infection. Sera from nine wild coyotes captured subsequently in the same general area were tested by the rapid plate agglutination method. Four of nine sera contained antibodies to Leptospira canicola, while one serum also contained antibodies for L. icterohaemorrhagiae. Epidemiology and morbidity are discussed.
Laboratory raised wild Norway rat males (Rattus norvegicus) were injected with leptospires of two serovars: icterohaemorrhagiae and grippotyphosa. The development of a carrier state was monitored serologically, culturally and histologically. Rats infected with icterohaemorrhagiae developed rapidly into a chronic carrier state and shed leptospires in the urine for the duration of the experiment (220 days). At the time of necropsy, histopathologic studies showed evidence of leptospiral infections in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules of some kidneys.
Rats infected with grippotyphosa shed organisms for 40 days after inoculation; thereafter, they apparently cleared the infection. No organisms were detected histologically nor by culture at the end of the experiment (220 days). There appears to be a specific host-parasite relationship in the Norway rat towards becoming chronic carriers when infected with serotype icterohaemorrhagiae but not with grippotyphosa.
Sera obtained from 616 (1.16%) of the 53,310 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in Missouri in the fall of 1979 were analyzed by the modified rapid card agglutination (MRCA) test for antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. The results indicated a low prevalence (1.14%) of MRCA reactors in the white-tailed deer population sampled.
Adult Elaeophora schneideri were recovered from the common carotid artery and its branches in 14 of 14 mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and 3 of 9 Barbary sheep or aoudads, Ammotragus lervia, from Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Gross cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis in the Barbary sheep varied from small circumscribed scars up to 10 cm in diameter usually on the poll or orbital region to extensive proliferative irregular encrustations on the frontal, temporal and orbital regions, sometimes extending to the ears and muzzle. Individual lesions varied from slate-gray scarred areas to brown proliferative edematous and hyperemic encrustations, sometimes with depigmented pustules a few millimeters in diameter. Microscopic lesions ranged from granulation tissue to severe pyogranulomatous reactions with neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells as the primary infiltration. Foreign body giant cells and/or microfilariae were not observed. Microscopic changes in the carotid arteries and their branches were limited to small villous projections on the intimal surface apparently resulting from medial hyperplasia. Cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis were not observed in mule deer. Histopathologic lesions in the carotid arteries of mule deer were similar to those observed in Barbary sheep. The comparative pathology of elaeophorosis in various hosts is reviewed and discussed in terms of its pathology in Barbary sheep. The potential ramifications of this infection on the expanding aoudad population in the southwestern United States require that elaeophorosis be considered in the management of this species, particularly in areas with sympatric mule deer populations.
Seventy of 72 green-winged teal, Anas crecca, from southwest Texas were infected with parasites. Seventeen species of endoparasities were recorded: Notocotylus attenuatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Typhlocoelum sisowi, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Dendritobilharzia pulverulenta, Cloacotaenia megalops, Sobolevicanthus gracilis, Sobolevicanthus krabbeella, Gastrotaenia cygni, Amidostomum acutum, Amidostomum anseris, Tetrameres crami, Echinuria uncinata, Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus. Also recorded were five species of ectoparasities: Trinoton querquedulae, Anaticola crassicornis, Anatoecous icterodes, Holomenopon setigerum and Epidermoptes sp. and the sarcosporidian, Sarcocystis rileyi.
Anatoecous icterodes is a new host record for A. crecca. Sobolevicanthus gracilis, S. krabbeella, T. sisowi, and D. pulverulenta are new records for A. crecca in North America. Sobolevicanthus krabbeella is also a new record for North America.
Fall juveniles had greater mean parasite intensity (29) than fall (19) and spring adults (19). Juveniles were infected with fewer species of parasites (17) than adults (20).
Simpson's index was very low (0.11) indicating a diverse parasite fauna. Sorenson's index of similarity indicated that the parasite fauna for green-winged teal from southwest Texas was more similar to the shoveler's, Anas clypeata, parasites reported from southwest Texas (55%) than to green-winged teal parasites reported from eastern Canada (41%) and New Brunswick, Canada (21%).
Dipetalonema spirocauda were found in 17 of 369 (4.6%) free-living ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 47 (8.5%) spotted seals (Phoca vitulina largha), 17 of 99 (17.2%) harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii), 1 of 19 (5.3%) ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata), and 2 of 51 (3.9%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) collected from March, 1975 through September, 1979 in Alaskan waters. This is the first report of D. spirocauda in ribbon and bearded seals. Certain species of marine mammals from the families Ursidae, Otarridae, Odobenidae, Balaenidae, Phocaenidae and Monodontidae also were examined but none was found to be infected.
Adult Splendidofilaria caperata Hibler, 1964 were found in the tunica media of the pulmonary arteries of 21% of 341 crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos Brehm) wintering in southern Ontario, Canada. Microfilariae of S. caperata were not observed in the peripheral blood or in skin snips of infected crows. Microfilariae were rarely found in lung blood and then only in small numbers. Microfilariae were apparently overcome in the wall of the pulmonary artery; chronic inflammation was associated with their presence in arterial tissue. Crows apparently acquire S. caperata from insects that have fed on birds in which a microfilaraemia does develop.
Between 1977 and 1979,1997 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 290 fox squirrels (S. niger) were examined for Cuterebra emasculator myiasis. Approximately 19% of the gray and 5% of the fox squirrels were infested with 1.9 and 2.5 larvae per host, respectively. Myiasis was seen between 14 August and 29 October. Peak infestations occurred in the second week of September. Adult and subadult squirrels had higher infestations than juveniles. Multiple infestations occurred in 51% of the hosts. Larval development sites were most prevalent in the axillary and back regions. The parasite was most prevalent in bottomland or flatland topography and hardwood habitat in east-central Mississippi. Fecundity of four virgin female flies averaged 771 eggs.
Phycomycosis (mucormycosis) was diagnosed in a 17-month old female gray squirrel. Characteristic fungal organisms were demonstrated in abscesses in the skin and lungs. The squirrel also had multiple fibromas in the skin from which a poxvirus was isolated.
Gross bony changes following a bullet wound to the mandible of an Alaskan black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) are described. Analysis of the mandible indicates that the bear lived 1-6 months following the injury and that it did not develop any major bacterial infection, unusual for such an injury.
Primary brain tumors were diagnosed in two aged, free-ranging cow elk (Cervus canadensis) in Colorado. Both animals had been observed prior to their deaths in an incoordinate, emaciated state and were apparently blind. At necropsy, a large astrocytoma involving primarily the left pyriform lobe was found in one animal and a meningeal sarcoma involving the optic chiasma and adjacent ventral meningeal surface of the brain was noted in the other elk.
In an examination of the causes of death of 36 Falco rusticolus islandus and 2 Falco rusticolus candicans from Iceland it was found that 12 birds had been shot, while 10 had died from various other injuries. Thirteen had died of infection with Capillaria contorta in the upper alimentary tract, and one of alkyl phosphate poisoning. The cause of death of two birds could not be determined.
A naturally-occurring fracture of the distal radius and ulna in a skeletally immature fin-whale, Balaenoptera physalus, appeared to be failing to heal. When compared to the response to fracture in the skeletally immature human and to other terrestrial mammals, this animal did not show any endosteal and only minimal subperiosteal callus, even though the fractures appeared to be several weeks, if not months old. This suggests that the larger ceteceans may not be able to respond appropriately to skeletal injury in the major structural units of the flipper.
Low brain and serum cholinesterase activity were found in several species of wading birds. The area from which these birds were taken recently had been sprayed with the organophosphorous insecticide fenthion (O, O-dimethyl O - [4-(methylthio)-m - tolyl] phosphorothioate). Analysis of stomach contents and water samples revealed residues of fenthion. These findings suggest that fenthion caused lethal cholinesterase depression.
Anesthesia was induced in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with an intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg thiopental sodium; this was followed by halothane (1%) anesthesia for up to 9.5 h. Cardiac output was reduced to 30% of the pre-anesthesia value (from an average of 11.5 1/min to 3.5 1/min) while systemic blood pressure fell from an average 150/110 to 80/60. Arterial oxygen partial pressures were somewhat depressed (58-72 Torr) during ventilation with air. Heart rate became stable at 90-100 beats/min. Hypothermia was an occasional problem during the first hour of anesthesia, but this trend reversed and gave way to hyperthermia during prolonged anesthesia.
Physiologic and hematologic values were established for two groups of free ranging Nelson desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni). Eleven sheep (Group I) were captured with a drop net, 16 sheep (Group II) were immobilized with Etorphine introduced in projectile syringes. The mean glucose level, respiration rate and leucocyte count values for Group I sheep were more than twice those observed in Group II sheep. There were no differences between the groups in the other values. Data obtained were compared to values previously established for free ranging and captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis), California bighorn sheep (O. c. californiana) and domestic sheep (O. aries).
Blood samples obtained from 55 captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas), collected over a 9-year period, were analyzed for hematology and serum chemistry values. Variations associated with differences in sex, age, and health-status were identified.
Four hemagglutinating agents were isolated from 100 cloacal samples collected from migratory water foul during the 1977 hunting season in Michigan. Three of the isolates are paramyxoviruses and they show no reactivity with antisera to Newcastle disease virus. The fourth isolate is an orthomyxovirus, A/Duck/Michigan/77 (Hswl Nav2).
Under experimental conditions two of the paramyxoviruses were recovered from the intestinal tract of chicks, and the third paramyxovirus was recovered from both the respiratory and intestinal tract of chicks. One paramyxovirus was pathogenic for chicks. The type A influenza virus was recovered from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts of chicks and caused subclinical infections
Development of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, and access to underdeveloped areas in the Llanos, may create disease hazards to man and domestic animals or introduce exotic pathogens, creating reservoirs of infection for domestic animals and acting as limiting factors on the native wild species. A survey of wild animals common to the Llanos revealed a number of parasites indigenous to the area. A total of 59 mammalian species, representing eight orders were examined. Haematozoa were represented by Trypanosoma cruzi, T. evansi and T. rangeli. Eight species of ticks were found: Amblyomma cajennense, A. auricularium, A. rotundatum, A. maculatum, A. longirostre, A. pacae, Ixodes luciae and Boophilus microplus. Four species of fleas were found: Rhopalopsyllus lugubris lugubris, R. australis tupinus, R. cacicus saevus and Polygenis klagesi samuelis. A species of Echinococcus was commonly found in Cuniculus paca. Serologic titers and/or isolations of pathogenic viral and bacterial agents generally indicated that the wildlife population had not been exposed to the diseases common to the domestic population. A low prevalence of titers to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis was found in Cebus apella and Proechimys sp. Neutralizing antibodies to Group B viruses were found in Proechimys sp., Coendor sp. and Nectomys squamipes. Antibodies to Group C viruses were found in Proechimys sp. Serologic titers to Leptospira sejroe and L. tarassovi were found in Proechimys sp. and Didelphis marsupialis. L. tarassovi was isolated from Proechimys sp. Titers to Brucella were not found in 164 animals. The significance of these findings are discussed.