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A total of 1296 free-living mammals and birds of 12 species was examined for serologic and bacteriologic evidence of leptospiral infection. Endemic infection with serovar ballum was found in several introduced species of mammals. Endemic ballum infection is not recognised in the same species in Great Britain, their country of origin.
Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were found to have a high prevalence of infection with balcanica, a serovar that has been isolated from possums in Australia and from cattle, pigs and humans in Eastern Europe. Free-living lagomorphs and deer were both serologically and bacteriologically negative. Waterfowl were bacteriologically negative, and only one serological titre was found.
Chlamydia psittaci was cultured from 29 of 35 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with keratoconjunctivitis. The disease progressed from acute to chronic stages over some months, with a known duration of at least 2 years. One recovered carrier was found. Up to 29% of koalas in some populations were clinically affected. A seasonal spread of infection was indicated by the high percentage of acutely affected cases found in summer. There was no evidence of susceptibility being related to age or sex.
The sera of all chronically affected koalas had complement fixation test titres against chlamydial group antigen of 80 or above; in acute cases the titre ranged from 0 to 320. Of normal koalas, 84% were serologically negative, 16% had chlamydial antibody. A titre of 80 or more considered in conjunction with ocular disease could be taken as presumptive evidence of a chlamydial etiology.
Chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis may be the ocular disease which was associated with the decline of koala numbers between the years 1885 and 1930.
An epizootic among perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occurred during the summer and fall of 1979 in an alpine lake (Lake Annecy, Haute-Savoie) in France. Hemorrhagic and ulcerative clinical signs were associated with the height of the mortality. A Gram-negative, non-motile, slow-growing bacterium was isolated from skin lesions in diseased fish. Aeromonas hydrophila often was present. Since the non-motile bacterium was suspected to be the etiological agent, its characteristics and pathogenicity were determined. The bacterium was pathogenic to perch, possibly pathogenic to rainbow trout, and non-pathogenic to carp. It could be reisolated from infected fish, but its physiologic and biochemical properties have not been assessed to determine the taxonomic position.
An epornitic of avian cholera involving approximately 150 birds is described from a flock of common crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, on a single playa lake utilized as a roost in Castro County, Texas, during early spring of 1980. There was a concomitant epornitic of avian cholera involving several hundred ducks and geese of several species on adjacent lakes in the same area. Crows scavenged extensively on waterfowl carcasses. Gross and histopathologic lesions in waterfowl were typical of acute avian cholera. Crows had a more chronic form of the disease, especially neurological involvement with the most common lesion consisting of a hemorrhagic meningitis. Other endemic species from which Pasteurella multocida was isolated included the short-eared owl, Asio flammeus, and cottontail rabbit, Silvilagus sp. The role of crows in the dissemination and maintenance of avian cholera is discussed.
During a skunk eradication program in late August, 1979,53 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were removed from three public use areas on Beaver Lake, Benton and Carroll counties in northwestern Arkansas. None of the 53 animals were positive for rabies (fluorescent antibody technique) and only one of 45 (2.2%) was positive for rabies antibodies. Twenty-one of 45 animals (46.6%) tested were positive for leptospirosis; 10 of 45 (22.2%) were positive for toxoplasmosis; and none were positive for tularemia. High populations of striped skunks in public use areas could be a potentially important reservoir for several diseases affecting both humans and other animals.
A total of 320 of 621 (52%) captive Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, died from fin rot over an 8-year period; mortality reached high proportions in 1979 when 110 of 168 (66%) succumbed. Lesions were confined to the fins, skin and dermal musculature and were observed 3-10 days after the fish were placed in laboratory aquaria. Erosion of the fins and caudal peduncle, accompanied by petechiae and ulceration also were apparent in the trunk region. Most deaths occurred within 2 months after capture. Infection was associated with depressed hematocrit, hemoglobin and total plasma protein and an increase of circulating immature erythrocytes and neutrophils. Mortality was probably due to physiological stress resulting from excessive blood loss. Three genera of bacteria, mostly Pseudomonas, but also Aeromonas and Vibrio, were isolated from fin rot tissues and possibly are the causative agents of the disease.
The parasites of indigenous populations of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north and south Florida were compared with those of an introduced population of white-winged doves (Z. asiatica) in south Florida. Thirty-two species of parasites including 5 protozoans, 7 nematodes, 2 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 7 acarines, 7 mallophagans, and 2 dipterans were found. Of these, 16 were common to both species of doves. Mourning doves from north Florida showed a more diverse parasite fauna than did the white-winged or mourning dove populations from south Florida. Nematodes were the most common parasites in all three populations; infected doves contained one or two nematode species per dove. Total helminth burdens per infected dove averaged 13.1 for white-winged doves, 19.9 for mourning doves in south Florida, and 6.6 for mourning doves in north Florida. The prevalence of infections by Trichomonas gallinae was higher in white-winged doves (97%) than in mourning doves in south Florida (17%) or in mourning doves in north Florida (1%). The high prevalence of this parasite in expanding populations of white-winged doves may pose a threat to mourning dove populations since some strains of T. gallinae are pathogenic.
Two long-billed curlews (Numenius americanus Bechstein) were collected near Elida, Roosevelt Co., New Mexico. Two species of endoparasites were recovered, the cestode Choanotaenia numenii Owen, 1946 and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916. Three mallophagan species, Cummingsiella longistricola (Wilson, 1937), Austromenopon crocatum (Nitzsch, 1866) and Lunaceps numenii numenii (Denny, 1844), were also recovered. All represent new distribution records while M. papillosus and L. numenii numenii also represent new host records.
Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 mule deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74.
A total of 143 bobcats (Felis rufus) from West Virginia and 10 bobcats from Georgia was examined for parasites and selected infectious agents. A total of 31 species of parasites was recovered including 1 protozoan, 1 trematode, 4 cestodes, 1 acanthocephalan and 24 nematodes. Results indicate bobcats are important definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sp. and Toxoplasma gondii. Thirteen species (Paragonimus kellicotti, Spirometra mansonoides, Taenia macrocystis, T. rileyi, Capillaria putorii, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara mystax, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Osierus rostratus, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, and Troglostrongylus wilsoni) were considered common components of the helminth fauna of southeastern bobcats. Host age and/or host density had significant relationships (P≤0.05) to the prevalences of infection of some parasites. Salmonella spp. were isolated from six bobcats, and Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from a single bobcat. Bobcat populations studied did not have overt clinical parasitism or disease during the fall and winter.
An injured mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted for treatment of gunshot wounds. Parasites resembling Plasmodium polare were detected in the peripheral blood during routine examination. The eagle died from a bacteremia secondary to necrotizing osteomyelitis. Due to the severity of the eagle's wounds, it was impossible to assess the impact of Plasmodium on the deterioration of the eagle's condition.
Glugea stephani requires temperatures above 15 C for development in juvenile pleuronectid flatfishes in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. The effect of low temperature (10 C) on the development of recently established parasites was tested experimentally in juvenile English sole (Parophrys vetulus). Low temperature arrested parasite development, but did not kill the protozoan which resumed development on return to 19-20 C after as long as 42 days at 10 C. No parasites detectable with the light microscope were found in fish examined after 70 days at 10 C. Although most juvenile English sole move permanently from the estuary to cooler ocean waters in the fall and do not contribute to the continuation of the parasite life cycle, the cycle may be maintained by low numbers of English sole that overwinter in the estuary.
Two nematodes, Acuaria anthuris (Rudolphi, 1819), Diplotriaena tricuspis (Fedtschenko, 1874); two cestodes, Anomotaenia constricta (Molin, 1858), Hymenolepis corvi (Mayhew, 1925); and one acanthocephalan, Mediorhynchus grandis (Van Cleave, 1916) were recovered from the white-necked raven (Corvus cryptoleucus Couch). All represent new host and distribution records. A relationship appears to exist between corvid host percentages and extent of zoogeographical distributions.
Sporocyste containing four sporozoites and measuring (avg.) 15.2 μm × 10.7 μm (N=195) were shed in the feces of dogs (Canis familiaris) 8 to 16 days (avg. 11.6 days) after the first feeding of venison infected with Sarcocystis sp. Sporocysts containing four sporozoites and measuring (avg.) 11.5 μm × 8.1 μm (N=35) were shed by a cat (Felis catus) 14 days after ingesting Sarcocystis-infected venison. Statistical (pooled t-test) comparison of the mean measurements of the sporocysts passed by the dog and cat demonstrated a significant difference (P<.01). The raccoon (Procyon lotor) and opossum (Didelphis virginiana) could not be infected with Sarcocystis from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
The name, Sarcocystis odocoileocanis, is proposed for the species transmitted from white-tailed deer to dogs. Sarcocystis odocoileocanis is differentiated from S. hemionilatrantis Hudkins and Kistner, 1977 of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), S. ovicanis Heydorn, Gestrich, Mehlhorn and Rommel, 1975 of sheep (Ovis aries) and S. cruzi Hasselmann, 1926 (=S. bovicanis Heydorn, Gestrich, Mehlhorn and Rommel, 1975) of cattle (Bos taurus) because S. odocoileocanis has (1) low infectivity for calves and sheep and (2) apparent insignificant pathogenicity for its intermediate host.
Blood samples were taken from 39 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), usually soon after they were captured. The blood was examined microscopically for trypanosomes, and most samples were tested for trypanosome serum antibodies and inoculated into small laboratory animals. Serum antibodies were found in most animals and trypanosomes identified as Trypanosoma brucei were found in 7 of 39 (18%) of the rhinoceros. Berenil (diminazene aceturate) did not effect complete elimination of trypanosomes. In spite of treatment, one rhinoceros died of trypanosomiasis.
Lesions occurred in the female genital tract of 10 of 16 (63%) koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus, examined in Victoria. Inflammation of the uterine horns was seen in all 10 affected koalas; six of these had vaginitis and eight also had salpingitis. Cystic dilation of the ovarian bursa, occasionally with hydrosalpinx, was seen in six koalas with concurrent inflammatory lesions of the lower tract. Cystic lesions were considered to have developed as chronic sequelae to previous inflammation in the ovarian bursa. Lesions were not found in the ovaries. Lesions in the urinary tract lesions were noted in four koalas with genital tract pathology. The significance of these findings in relation to the reproductive success of the koala population on Phillip Island is discussed.
Blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (Ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (Ursus arctos), 14 moose (Alces alces), 6 mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) and 30 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. Also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goats, but all other comparisons were significantly different (P<0.001). Torpid black bear had higher levels than all other groups. Moose and mountain goats had the lowest levels. The possibility of beta-endorphin influencing behavior and physiology of mammals is discussed.
The mosquitoes Culex nigripalpus and Wyeomyia vanduzeei transmitted wild turkey poxvirus during interrupted feeding in 20 of 20 trials. In addition, C. nigripalpus transmitted the virus in 7 of 10 trials and 8 of 9 trials 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after feeding on infected turkeys.
Seven of 20 adult male bighorn sheep (Ouis canadensis canadensis) ranging from 3 to 7 years of age, from the Saguache, Colorado Area, had active lesions of contagious ecthyma. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, animal inoculation, and electron microscopy. This is the first documentation of this disease in bighorn sheep of Colorado.
Sera from various wild ruminants co-existing in the same habitats with cattle had haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies as high as those in the cattle. Sera from wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), kongoni (Alcelaphus cokei), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii), eland (Taurotragus oryx) and the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) had titers ranging from 64 to 128. Zebra (Equus burchelli), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), and oryx (Oryx spp.) sera were negative to the HI test. It was suggested that some of the wild ruminants with high titers could be a possible reservoir of parainfluenza-3 virus.
The prevalence of antibodies to some bovine viruses of the respiratory and digestive systems were investigated in two caribou herds in Northern Quebec, Canada, in autumn of 1978 in one herd, and 1979 in another herd. The serum neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition techniques were used. Antibody to bovine viral diarrhea was the most prevalent in the two years (69.3% in 1978 and 60.7% in 1979), followed by bovine adenovirus 3 (42.9% and 17.8%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (39.6% and 14.2%) and coronavirus (13.3% in 1978 only). Antibody to parainfluenzavirus 3 was not detected.