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1 July 1988 AN OUTBREAK OF TYPE E BOTULISM AMONG COMMON LOONS (GAVIA IMMER) IN MICHIGAN'S UPPER PENINSULA
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Abstract

An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the Lake Michigan shore. We suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or dead fish containing type E toxin.

Christopher J. Brand, Stephen M. Schmitt, Ruth M. Duncan, and Thomas M. Cooley "AN OUTBREAK OF TYPE E BOTULISM AMONG COMMON LOONS (GAVIA IMMER) IN MICHIGAN'S UPPER PENINSULA," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24(3), 471-476, (1 July 1988). https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-24.3.471
Received: 23 July 1987; Published: 1 July 1988
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