Sphaeridiotrema globulus in experimentally infected mute swans (Cygnus olor), mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) induced ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. Sites of infection include the jejunum and ileum. The digeneans ulcerated the intestine. The inflammatory response was primarily lymphocytic with some eosinophils. Severe hemorrhage from damaged submucosal capillaries provided a blood meal for the parasite and caused anemia in the host. Extra-medullary hematopoiesis occurred in the liver, and an erythroid hyperplasia occurred in the bone marrow of infected birds. Infected birds exhibited muscular weakness and died from shock associated with severe blood loss. Mallards and Canada geese were less susceptible to fatal infection than the mute swan as evidenced by survivors in the higher dose groups.
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Vol. 25 • No. 1