Although it is well established that wild birds, such as cormorants, carry virulent avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1; causative agent of Newcastle disease) and avian influenza virus (AIV), the prevalence of these viruses among Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Great Lakes region of North America has not been rigorously studied. We determined the prevalences of APMV-1 and AIV in Double-crested Cormorants from the interior population of eastern North America. From 2009 to 2011, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and serum samples were collected from 1,957 individual Double-crested Cormorants, ranging from chicks to breeding adults, on breeding colony sites in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Mississippi, USA, and Ontario, Canada, as well as on the wintering grounds of migratory populations in Mississippi, USA. Prevalence of antibodies to APMV-1 in after–hatch year birds was consistently high across all three years, ranging from 86.3% to 91.6%. Antibody prevalences in chicks were much lower: 1.7, 15.3, and 16.4% in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Virulent APMV-1 was detected in six chicks sampled in 2010 in Ontario, Canada. Only one adult was positive for AIV-specific antibodies and five individuals were positive for AIV matrix protein, but the latter were negative for H5 and H7 AIV subtypes. We provide further evidence that Double-crested Cormorants play an important role in the maintenance and circulation of APMV-1 in the wild, but are unlikely to be involved in the circulation of AIV.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 49 • No. 4