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1 October 2013 Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Birds and Mammals in the Emilia Romagna Region, Northern Italy
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Abstract

Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

Wildlife Disease Association 2013
Francesco Defilippo, Andrea Luppi, Giulia Maioli, Dario Marzi, Maria Cristina Fontana, Federica Paoli, Paolo Bonilauri, Michele Dottori, and Giuseppe Merialdi "Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Birds and Mammals in the Emilia Romagna Region, Northern Italy," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(4), (1 October 2013). https://doi.org/10.7589/2013-03-072
Received: 9 March 2013; Accepted: 1 May 2013; Published: 1 October 2013
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