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1 April 2014 BLOOD COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER FOR WILDLIFE SEROLOGY: DETECTING ANTIBODIES TO NEOSPORA CANINUM, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND FIVE BOVINE VIRUSES IN REINDEER
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Abstract
We compared Nobuto filter paper (FP) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Serum and FP samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008–2009. Sample pairs (serum and FP eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) for Neospora caninum and West Nile virus (WNV); indirect ELISA (iELISAs) for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV); and virus neutralization (VN) for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types I and II. Assay thresholds were evidence-based values employed by each laboratory. Comparable performance to serum was defined as FP sensitivity and specificity ≥80%. Filter-paper specificity estimates ranged from 92% in the cELISAs for N. caninum and WNV to 98% in the iELISAs for PI-3 and BRSV. Sensitivity was >85% for five tests (most ≥95%) but was insufficient (71–82%) for the PI-3 and BRSV iELISAs. Lowering the threshold for FP samples in these two ELISAs raised sensitivity to ≥87% and reduced specificity slightly (≥90% in three of the four test runs). Sample size limited the precision of some performance estimates. Based on the criteria of sensitivity and specificity ≥80%, and using adjusted FP thresholds for PI-3 and BRSV, FP sensitivity and specificity were comparable to serum in all seven assays. A potential limitation of FP is reduced sensitivity in tests that require undiluted serum (i.e., N. caninum cELISA and BVDV VNs). Possible toxicity to the assay cell layer in VN requires investigation. Results suggested that cELISA is superior to iELISA for detecting antibodies in FP samples from reindeer and other Rangifer tarandus subspecies. Our findings expand the potential utility of FP sampling from wildlife.
Wildlife Disease Association 2014
Patricia S. Curry, Carl Ribble, William C. Sears, Wendy Hutchins, Karin Orsel, Dale Godson, Robbin Lindsay, Antonia Dibernardo and Susan J. Kutz "BLOOD COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER FOR WILDLIFE SEROLOGY: DETECTING ANTIBODIES TO NEOSPORA CANINUM, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND FIVE BOVINE VIRUSES IN REINDEER," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(2), (1 April 2014). https://doi.org/10.7589/2012-02-047
Received: 18 February 2012; Accepted: 1 September 2013; Published: 1 April 2014
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