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26 April 2018 A Mixture of Butorphanol, Azaperone, and Medetomidine for the Immobilization of American Beavers (Castor canadensis)
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A total of 58 American beavers (Castor canadensis) was immobilized with butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) for the purpose of health assessments, sex determination, and placement of very high-frequency tail transmitters in a subset of animals. Isoflurane gas anesthesia was available to aid with induction when needed, and all animals received supplementary oxygen. Thirty-one beavers immobilized with a mean (SD) dose of 0.65 (0.15) mg/kg butorphanol, 0.22 (0.05) mg/kg azaperone, and 0.26 (0.06) mg/kg medetomidine did not require supplemental isoflurane during induction and the mean induction time was 8 min (range: 3–21 min). This dose was equivalent to 0.024 (0.005) mL of BAM per kilogram. A total of 29 beavers that were immobilized with a mean (SD) of 0.51 (0.07) mg/kg butorphanol, 0.17 (0.02) mg/kg azaperone, and 0.2 (0.03) mg/kg medetomidine needed supplementary isoflurane at 5% and 5 L/min for <1 min to induce full anesthesia. In none of the beavers did BAM alone provide sufficient depth of anesthesia to drill a hole in the tail for transmitter placement, and supplementary isoflurane was administered to reach a sufficient level of analgesia for the procedure. The beavers were reversed with 5 mg of atipamezole per milligram of medetomidine and 1 mg of naltrexone per milligram of butorphanol. No adverse effects or mortalities were observed. Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine can be considered safe for use in American beavers for minor procedures.

© Wildlife Disease Association 2018
Annette Roug, Heather Talley, Troy Davis, Marilei Roueche, and Darren DeBloois "A Mixture of Butorphanol, Azaperone, and Medetomidine for the Immobilization of American Beavers (Castor canadensis)," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54(3), 617-621, (26 April 2018).
Received: 6 December 2017; Accepted: 21 January 2018; Published: 26 April 2018

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