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Sera derived from skunks, raccoons, opossums and woodchucks trapped in Maryland were examined for neutralizing antibodies to infectious canine hepatitis, canine distemper, canine herpes, and parainfluenza SV-5 viruses. Neutralizing antibodies to infectious canine hepatitis, previously found in skunks in the area, were demonstrated in 6 of 50 raccoons. Sera from 2 of 25 skunks and 21 of 25 raccoons had canine distemper neutralizing antibodies. Infectious canine hepatitis and canine distemper antibodies were not demonstrable in sera of 25 opossums and 9 woodchucks. No neutralizing antibody to canine herpes or SV-5 virus were found in any of the sera tested.
The turtle collection of the New York Zoological Park was tested for the presence of intestinal Salmonella, Arizona, CitrobacterandEdwardsiella spp. Salmonella durham and Edwardsiella tarda were isolated from 11 species, representing 37 specimens of the 127 tested, with a resultant apparent rate of infection of 29%. Arizona and Citrobacter spp. were not isolated.
Sera from normal bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and bighorns with chronic pneumonia attributed to Mycoplasma and bacteria were analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Diseased sheep had significantly (p = <0.001) lower albumins, higher α1 and γ globulins, and A/G ratio below 1.0. The electrophoretic patterns, while not disease specific, provide means for detecting sub-clinical chronic disease and monitoring responses to therapy in bighorn sheep.
The onset and course of disease in a captive herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were studied. Major clinical signs were diarrhea, persistent coughs, mucopurulent nasal discharges, loss of weight, poor pelage appearance, and delayed pelage shedding. Primary pathological findings in 16 of 17 deaths were related to pneumonia. Mycoplasma arginini, Pasteurella sp., and Streptococcus sp. were isolated and considered probable etiologic agents. Parasites were not considered to be a primary cause of the clinical signs or the lung disease observed. Hematological changes indicated the chronicity of the disease and had prognostic and limited diagnostic value. Amyloidosis was observed in seven animals, suggesting a high susceptibility of the bighorn to secondary amyloidosis.
Mass mortality among migratory birds at Grand Forks, North Dakota, was attributed to a mosquito control operation employing the insecticide fenthion. The factors involved may have included the toxicity of the pesticide for birds, the method of application and coincidence with the peak of the spring warbler migration.
During June and July, 1970 and 1971, 3697 of 15,223 horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) belonging to seven species were dissected and examined for larval Elaeophora schneideri Wehr and Dikmans, 1935, in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. Hybomitra laticornis (Hine) comprised 90 percent of the six infected species. Almost 13,300 larvae were recovered with an average of 25 larvae per infected fly. Infective larvae were found in four species. Based on occurrence in collections, prevalence of infection and larval recovery, H. laticornis is considered to be the most important horse fly vector of this filarial parasite in southwest New Mexico. H. tetrica rubrilata (Philip) and Tabanus eurycerus Philip may be important vectors in other areas.
Hematologic and plasma chemical constituents were analyzed through a 72 hour period, on a bottle-nosed dolphin that had been subjected to excessive manipulation and carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Of the 19 parameters examined, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, and potassium, seem to have been mildly affected.
An outbreak of dictyocauliasis among a captive herd of black-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) occurred in January, 1971. A transient decrease in output of Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in feces occurred after treatment with levamisole hydrochloride given as a drench at the rate of 16 mg/kg of body weight.
Lungworm larvae were not recovered in feces 6 days after cambendazole, 2-(4-thiazolyl)-5-isopropoxycarbonylaminobenzimidazole, was given as a drench at 40 and 50 mg/kg of body weight. Larvae were again recovered in feces from these fawns between post-treatment days 15 and 23. Output of larvae in feces increased when fawns were confined on a contaminated grass pasture that was intensively grazed. Deteriorating physical condition of the fawns necessitated additional treatment with cambendazole and movement to a woodlot where reinfection by ingestion of larvae was probably minimized.
A noninfected deer was placed on the contaminated pasture 75 days after the infected herd was removed. After 55 days, lungworm larvae were recovered in feces from this deer. Then 29 days later, 20 fawns were placed on this pasture. Four of six of these fawns that were subsequently necropsied harbored light burdens of D. viviparus. Small numbers of lungworm larvae were recovered in feces from five of eight remaining fawns.
Patent infections did not develop in calves after inoculation with Dictyocaulus viviparus infective larvae isolated from black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). One calf died of bacterial pneumonia on postinoculation day 21. Two calves coughed and had elevated respiratory rates and dyspnea between days 14 and 21. Respiration was normal for these calves on day 25.
A calf and a susceptible black-tailed deer were placed on contaminated grass pasture with eight deer infected naturally with D. viviparus. Patent infection did not develop in the calf but larvae of D. viviparus were recovered in feces from the deer on post-exposure day 30.
Half of the young Pekin ducks used in four experiments were given 250 cysts of Sphaeridiotrema globulus each. Sixteen days later all of the birds were given 1000 cysts each. When the birds were killed or died after 4 days, 11 of the 18 birds with initial infections were free of trematodes while all 17 of those without initial infections were parasitized. The control ducks harbored 6911 flukes, 17 times the number found in the previously infected birds.
Infection with Ehrlichia canis was successfully established in the red fox, Vulpes fulva, and the gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus. Transtadial transmission of Ehrlichia canis from an infected fox to a laboratory Beagle dog by the tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, was demonstrated.
Clinical, post-mortem and histological findings are described for an African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), which was naturally infected with acid-fast organisms. In addition to this infection, there was an invasion of the air sacs and, to a lesser extent the lungs, by an Aspergillus sp. The predominant clinical sign was dyspnoea and there were acid-fast organisms in lesions in the liver and kidney in addition to the respiratory tract.
A road-killed male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was brought to the laboratory for diagnosis of multiple thoracic abscesses. Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed on the basis of gross pathological lesions and microbiological examination.
Necropsy of a South American red squirrel (Sciurus granatensis), with clinical signs of neurological disease, disclosed multifocal parasitic granulomata in the brain, lung and myocardium. Lesions were noted in the cerebral hemispheres and subcerebellar white matter. The parasite was identified as a larval ascarid. History of close contact with excreta from raccoons suggested the larvae were that of Ascaris columnaris, an intestinal nematode of the raccoon.
Lead poisoning was diagnosed in five of seven primates affected with leuccencephalomyelosis that were necropsied at the National Zoological Park and the Antwerp Zoo. Diagnoses of lead poisoning were made by various means including the detection of acid-fast intranuclear inclusions in renal proximal tubular cells and the presence of excess lead in the liver specimens.
The implications of the concurrence of lead intoxication and leucoencephalomyelosis is discussed with regard to etiology and pathogenesis.
Yersiniosis is a disease of man and other animals due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (syn. Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis) and Y. enterocolitica. The majority of human and animal infections have been recorded in Europe, but in recent years the disease has been recognized more frequently in North America, Asia and Australia. In the United Kingdom Y. pseudotuberculosis infection has been found in 6 species of wild mammals and in 21 species of wild birds. Principal reservoirs of infection are rodents and birds. Human infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis is probably acquired by direct or indirect contact with animals. Yersinia enterocolitica infection is less widespread in wild animals but more prevalent in human beings than the corresponding Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Its epidemiology remains obscure.
Thirteen wombats (Vombatus ursinus) from north-eastern Tasmania were examined for evidence of leptospiral infection. Nine animals were found to have significant serum titres to Leptospira pomona. These wombats also had interstitial nephritis and leptospires were detected in the renal tubules of some of these animals.
Two wombats, serologically-negative for leptospirosis, were inoculated with material known to contain L. pomona. A condition, more severe than the natural disease, was produced in these animals.
Our knowledge, at all levels of information, on the relationships of ticks with wild fauna is sparse. There is a need for greater understanding of these facets if we are to understand the transmission of disease to wild vertebrates. The following levels of information required are outlined: (a) the behaviour of the ticks on the host before feeding, (b) the feeding process, (c) the host reaction at the level of tissue response, (d) parasite induced resistance mechanisms of the host to repeated tick infestation, (e) the temporal occurrence of ticks, (f) the regulating factors controlling tick populations, (g) the population dynamics of the host and (h) the susceptibility of hosts to trans-species transmitted pathogens.
Haematological values of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) infected with Cuterebra emasculator were compared to those of non-infected hosts. Parasitized animals were anaemic and had a leucocyte count approximately twice that of the parasite-free animals. The differential leucocyte count varied with the stage of development of the parasite. Activity of the host was little affected by the presence of the warble during its parasitic invasion of the host tissue. Subsequent to the parasite leaving the host, the lesions became purulent; the activity of the host at this time was severely reduced.
Blood parasites, Haematoxenus and Theilenia, were found to be common in African buffalo sampled in Queen Elizabeth Park, Uganda. These parasites are described and compared with similar forms from cattle.