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Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VE) virus was isolated 18 times from blood of Oryzomys in tropical forests near Belem, Brazil. Rainfall, Culex population levels, and nonimmune Oryzomys population levels were analyzed during 1962 to 1964 and 1968 to 1970 for association with transmission of VE virus. A positive correlation between VE virus transmission in Oryzomys and the abundance of nonimmune animals was determined. Infection of man with rodent-associated viruses such as VE probably occurs during crepuscular hours when Culex (Melanoconion) mosquitoes and rodents are active.
Edwardsiella tarda was isolated from lakes and streams in Northcentral Florida. This emerging enteric bacterial pathogen also was isolated from alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and brown pelicans (Pelecannus occidentalis carolinensis) on several occasions, and from other species including the ring-billed gull (Larus delewarensis), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), common loon (Gavia immer), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Hemorrhagic enteritis was found in association with E. tarda in some of the species presented.
Fifty-six leptospiral isolations were made from 101 water samples collected from water sources on a 2020 hectares semi-wooded area in southern Illinois. Although four isolates reacted with standard antisera against several pathogenic serotypes, none was able to produce signs in either gerbils or hamsters.
An 8-year survey of filarial worm infections in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in a northern California study area revealed that the great majority of deer became infected with three filariids. The footworm (Wehrdik-mansia cervipedis) and the arterial worm (Elaeophora schneideri) showed increased prevalence with host age but just the opposite was seen with the abdominal worm (Setaria yehi). Most fawns were infected with S. yehi as were almost half of the yearlings but the parasite was relatively scarce in deer over 2 years of age.
Sixty-eight western roach, Hesperoleucus symmetricus symmetricus, from two foothill streams east of Fresno, California were examined for ectoparasites. Results of the limited survey showed nine new records for ectoparasite species for roach. Four species of protozoa, Trichodina sp., Glossatella sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Myxobolus sp., one species of monogenetic trematode, Urocleidus sp., three species of copepods, Lernaea bagri, L. piscinae and Lernaea sp. and the Hirudinean, Piscicola punctatus, represent the new records. Morphological characteristics and mensural data for Trichodina sp. and Glossatella sp. indicate these protozoa may be new species. Each roach was host to at least one species of ectoparasite. One fish harbored five species of parasites, while the average number of parasite species per fish was 2.5.
Capillaria hepatica (Bancroft, 1893) infection was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology in a juvenile female coyote (Canis latrans) from southern Saskatchewan. This is the first report of C. hepatica from this host and the second record of this parasite from a wild carnivore.
A 4 year old female African bush elephant developed a slowly-growing mass of 6 months' duration on the medial aspect of the carpal area of the right front leg. Histopathological examination revealed a low grade fibrosarcoma.
Four raccoons and one of two skunks inoculated with brain suspensions containing the transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent developed a neurologic disease characterized by alterations of behavior, by incoordination and by slowing of motor activity. Histologic examination of the brains revealed a spongiform polioencephalopathy as is characteristic of the disease in mink. Fourteen ferrets inoculated with TME brain suspensions remained asymptomatic until sacrifice 2 years post-inoculation. A spongiform degeneration of gray matter was present in all ferret brains. However, the lesions and their topographical distribution were distinctly different from those seen in the brains of all other species susceptible to TME infection.
Sera collected from 187 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from southern Texas in 1963, 1970, 1971, and 1972 were tested for the ability to neutralize several California group arboviruses. Jamestown Canyon virus was specifically neutralized by 99 of the 187 sera (53%). San Angelo and Keystone viruses were specifically neutralized by four and one sera respectively. Serologic evidence of infection of deer with California encephalitis or LaCrosse virus was not detected. Results of limited inoculation studies indicate that white-tailed deer are probably incidental, dead-end hosts for San Angelo and Keystone viruses. White-tailed deer are sensitive indicators of Jamestown Canyon virus and may be an important vertebrate host for this virus.
Generalized subcutaneous abscessation followed by acute systemic infection occurred in a young male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii). Clinically, infection was manifested by malaise, progressive weight loss, labored respiration, intermittant vomitation, and mucohemorrhagic diarrhea. A coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the subcutaneous abscesses, and specimens of lung, liver, small intestine, and kidney. Microscopically, cysts and trophozoites of Toxoplasma gondii were found in, or adjacent to, foci of necrosis present throughout the liver parenchyma.