Chemical markers are increasingly used to investigate consumption of baits used to deliver vaccines, toxicants, and contraceptives. We evaluated whether ethyl-iophenoxic acid (Et-IPA) and propyl-iophenoxic acid (Pr-IPA) can be used as long-lasting systemic bait markers for wild boar (Sus scrofa). We presented captive wild boar with baits treated with either Et-IPA or Pr-IPA at 5 mg/kg (low dose), 10 mg/kg (medium dose), and 20 mg/kg (high dose) of body weight. We collected serum from each boar at 5 time points: 5 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 11 weeks, and 39 weeks following ingestion of iophenoxic acid–treated baits. We detected both Et-IPA and Pr-IPA for ≥39 weeks after ingestion. Throughout the trial, the Et-IPA we found in serum was proportional to the amount eaten. At each time point, animals in the high-dose group had significantly more Et-IPA than animals in the low-dose group. We concluded that both compounds can be used as long-lasting markers in wild boar and that Et-IPA can also be employed as quantitative marker to indicate multiple bait uptake. Both compounds have potential applications in the context of vaccination, fertility, and population control campaigns, where baits are used to deliver pharmaceuticals, and in behavioral studies to establish spatial and temporal patterns of bait uptake.
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Vol. 73 • No. 3