For species with temperature-dependent sex determination, such as marine turtles, global climate change poses numerous threats. At the nesting beach, rising temperatures are predicted to further skew already female-biased sex ratios and increase embryonic mortality; sea-level rise and resultant coastal squeeze may leave few alternative breeding habitats in developed regions. As a result, clutch relocation, a commonly used management tool to reduce egg loss, may become necessary for safeguarding populations. Although studies have examined the impact of relocation on clutch success, few have examined the impact of this practice on the sex or phenotypic characteristics of hatchlings produced. We used a randomized block design experiment to examine effects of relocation on green turtle (Chelonia mydas) clutches. We compared hatching success, thermal conditions, and size (length and mass) of hatchlings from in situ control clutches with those subjected to 2 relocation methods, while controlling for maternal and other environmental effects. Relocated clutches did not vary significantly from control clutches in incubation temperature or inferred sex ratios during the critical middle third of incubation when sex is thought to be determined. Hatchling size was also unaffected by relocation. Both relocation methods, however, resulted in a 20% reduction in hatching success in comparison to in situ clutches. Clutch relocation is, however, likely to affect the population primary sex ratio, when clutches are relocated from sites in proximity to the sea where tidal inundation is a threat. Here, cooler conditions are likely to produce more males than are the warmer female-producing temperatures higher up the beach. For clutches at risk, relocation is a viable process and does not appear to affect hatchling size or predicted sex ratios if relocation sites are selected in areas utilized by other females. We urge caution, however, when moving clutches from potentially male-producing sites, particularly given predicted impacts of climate change on already female-biased sex ratios.
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Vol. 73 • No. 7