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1 August 2010 Laboratory Efficacy of Chemical Repellents for Reducing Blackbird Damage in Rice and Sunflower Crops
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Abstract

Nonlethal alternatives are needed to manage blackbird (Icterids) damage to rice and sunflower production in the United States. We evaluated 4 registered fungicides on rice seeds (i.e., Allegiance® FL, Thiram 42-S, Trilex®, and Vitavax® 200 preplant seed treatments) and 2 foliar pesticides on sunflower seeds (Cobalt™ insecticide and Flock Buster bird repellent) as candidate blackbird repellents. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) preferred untreated rice relative to rice treated with Thiram (P < 0.001) and Vitavax (P < 0.001), and untreated sunflower relative to sunflower treated with Cobalt (P < 0.001). Blackbirds preferred untreated sunflower relative to sunflower treated with Flock Buster repellent on day 1 of a 4-day preference test (P < 0.001). We observed no difference in consumption of treated versus untreated rice during the Allegiance preference test (P  =  0.928), and blackbirds preferred rice treated with Trilex relative to untreated rice (P  =  0.003). Although repellency was positively related to tested concentrations of Thiram (P  =  0.010), Trilex (P  =  0.026), and Vitavax (P < 0.001), maximum repellency was <50% during our concentration-response tests of these seed treatments. Repellency was also positively related to tested concentrations of Cobalt (P < 0.001), and we observed >80% repellency of sunflower treated with Cobalt at ≥50% of the label rate. We observed no concentration-response relationship for the Allegiance seed treatment (P  =  0.341) and Flock Buster repellent (P  =  0.952). We recommend implementation of supplemental field studies to compare laboratory efficacy, repellency, and chemical residues of effective avian repellents throughout periods of needed crop protection.

Scott J. Werner, George M. Linz, Shelagh K. Tupper, and James C. Carlson "Laboratory Efficacy of Chemical Repellents for Reducing Blackbird Damage in Rice and Sunflower Crops," Journal of Wildlife Management 74(6), 1400-1404, (1 August 2010). https://doi.org/10.2193/2009-287
Published: 1 August 2010
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