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1 March 2000 ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA IN A JUVENILE SOUTHERN BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS MINOR)
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Abstract

A 21-mo-old female southern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) developed acute upper respiratory dyspnea in association with lymphadenopathy and marked immature lymphocytosis. A diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was reached on the basis of the morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of peripheral lymphoblasts. Antineoplastic chemotherapy included administration of cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and doxorubicin, with clinical remission achieved 19 days after initiation of treatment. The rhinoceros died, however, of congestive heart failure, presumably secondary to doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and a particular sensitivity of rhinoceros myocardial tissue to free hydroxyl radicals. The pharmacologic effects of any therapeutic agent need to be carefully considered before use in the black rhinoceros, especially within the context of the unique physiology of this species.

Robin W. Radcliffe, Donald E. Paglia, and C. Guillermo Couto "ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA IN A JUVENILE SOUTHERN BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS MINOR)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31(1), 71-76, (1 March 2000). https://doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260(2000)031[0071:ALLIAJ]2.0.CO;2
Received: 8 July 1998; Published: 1 March 2000
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