A severe poxvirus infection occurred in three pudu (Pudu puda), resulting in two fatalities. Cutaneous ulcers with mucopurulent exudate were present around the eyes and nose, at the lip margins, coronary bands, and teats. Mucosal ulcers were present in the oral cavity, esophagus, and forestomachs. In the two fatalities, a secondary disseminated fungal infection also occurred. Affected animals were leukopenic, hypocalcemic, and hyperphosphatemic and had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Electron microscopic examination of affected skin confirmed the presence of a poxvirus. Neutralizing antibody titers to this virus were present in the two pudu tested. One case was treated with cidofovir, 5 mg/kg i.v. q7d for four treatments. Complete recovery occurred in the treated animal. This is the second report of poxvirus infection in pudu and the first report describing clinical presentation, presence of secondary disseminated fungal infection, and successful treatment.
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