In this study, an attempt was made to use vaginal electrical impedance to predict calving in a female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) and to determine the relationship between vaginal electrical impedance and hormonal profiles during pregnancy. The principle behind vaginal electrical impedance is that a change in the ionic balance of vaginal and cervical mucus occurs in response to changes in reproductive hormones. Three times weekly vaginal electrical impedance readings and fecal samples were collected from midgestation to calving (a 6-mo period). The extracted fecal samples were analyzed for immunoreactive estrogens, progestagens, and corticoids by RIA. Vaginal electrical impedance readings did not decrease before calving but remained consistent throughout the last 140 days of pregnancy. Fecal progestagens in the white rhinoceros decreased between day 17 and day 1 before calving, whereas estrogens increased between 4 and 2 mo before calving, with an additional increase occurring 1 mo before calving. Fecal corticoids increased 5 mo before calving, slowly declined, and increased again within 3 wk before calving. A decline in vaginal electrical impedance was noted 168 days before calving and remained at low levels for 4 wk. At the time of this decrease, the female became aggressive toward the male and began lactating. Fecal progestagens and estrogens did not change during this time; however, fecal corticoids increased as vaginal electrical impedance readings returned to normal along with her behavior and cessation of lactation. In summary, the use of vaginal electrical impedance could not predict parturition in the white rhinoceros. However, an anomaly occurred during pregnancy that was supported by vaginal electrical impedance readings, a change in female behavior, premature lactation, and a subsequent increase in fecal corticoids. The etiology of this physiological anomaly is unknown, yet it did not compromise pregnancy.