A tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride combination was used successfully to immobilize 27 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) at a mean dose of 2.77 ± 0.56 (mean ± SD) mg/kg. The induction time ranged from 3–15 min. Animals remained immobilized for periods of 48.56 ± 12.65 min. Compulsive licking, excessive salivation, muscle twitching, muscle tremors, tachypnea, and bradycardia were observed associated with the induction of the anesthesia in 13 of 27 maned wolves. Muscle twitching, pedal withdrawal reflex, muscle tremors, and ataxia were observed during recovery in three (11%) maned wolves. There were no significant differences in heart rates (P = 0.44), respiratory rates (P = 0.82), and rectal temperatures (P = 0.54) recorded at 5, 15, and 25 min after induction at these dosages. The tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride combination was shown to be an effective and safe immobilizing agent for free-ranging maned wolves.
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