Medetomidine (0.02–0.06 mg/kg) in combination with zolazepam-tiletamine (0.8–2.3 mg/kg) were evaluated for reversible anesthesia in four species of Southeast Asian primates: Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus), Bornean gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Twenty-three anesthetic procedures of captive-held and free-ranging primates were studied in Sabah, Malaysia. The induction was smooth and rapid. Respiratory and heart rates were stable throughout anesthesia, whereas body temperature and systolic arterial blood pressure decreased significantly. Atipamezole at five times the medetomidine dose effectively reversed anesthesia, with first signs of recovery within 3–27 min.
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