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1 September 2010 The Normal Electrocardiogram of Conscious Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)
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The aim of this study was to describe the normal electrocardiographic patterns and values in conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads' electrocardiograms were recorded in the golden eagles. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm  =  1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, and QT durations and P, net QRS complex, and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis for the frontal plane was calculated using standard bipolar leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 346.7 ± 14.29 beats/min. The P wave was predominantly positive in standard bipolar leads I and II and augmented unipolar limb leads aVL and aVF. The dominant pattern of waveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads I, II, III, and aVF, whereas in leads aVR and aVL, the pattern was always R. The T wave was slightly positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart mean electrical axis was −85.9 ± 7.50°. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram values will facilitate a better understanding of electrocardiographic changes seen in many avian diseases.

Hossein Hassanpour, Abdol Karim Zamani Moghaddam, and Mehdi Cheraghchi Bashi "The Normal Electrocardiogram of Conscious Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(3), 426-431, (1 September 2010).
Received: 25 May 2009; Published: 1 September 2010

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