Eighteen mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and six Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) were held in pens and repeatedly anesthetized from April 2004 through June 2005 as part of an external parasite study. Deer were anesthetized using a combination of Telazol® and xylazine hydrochloride (HCL) administered intramuscularly. Tolazoline HCL was slowly administered at 4 mg/kg intravenously to reverse the effects of xylazine with good results. For 17 of the 19 mule deer anesthesias in the fall of 2004, a mean dose of 7.3 mg/kg of intravenous tolazoline (range 6.1–8.4 mg/kg) was given by mistake. This paper describes clinical signs of apnea, muscle tensing, and fasciculations immediately following intravenous administration of tolazoline HCL in mule deer (O. hemionus) at 1.5–3 times the recommended dose. Mean dose for black-tailed deer during this time was 8.1 mg/kg (range 5.5–12.4 mg/kg) with no clinical signs as seen in the mule deer. Based on these findings, intravenous tolazoline use in mule deer is recommended at ≤4 mg/kg.
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