Analysis of vitamins and trace elements has gained importance in avian medicine in recent years. It has become evident that interpretation should be based on species-specific reference intervals due to differences in intervals between species. This study was performed to evaluate the blood concentrations of vitamins A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), C (ascorbic acid), and E (α-tocopherol) and trace elements copper, selenium, and zinc for greater flamingos (Phoeniconaias (Phoenicopterus) rubeus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). Reference intervals of vitamins and trace elements are presented for clinically healthy flamingos. Thirty-six clinically healthy greater flamingos, divided into male and female groups, and 14 healthy lesser flamingos were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the vitamin and trace element concentrations between male and female greater flamingos, but there was a statistically significant difference between greater flamingos and lesser flamingos for ascorbic acid, copper, and selenium. Blood concentration of ascorbic acid was greater (P < 0.001) in lesser flamingos (122.66 ± 31.53 μM) than in male and female greater flamingos (40.53 ± 13.83 and 30.44 ± 11.43 μM, respectively). Blood concentrations of copper and selenium were greater (P < 0.001) in greater flamingos (copper: 5.57 ± 1.3 μM for males, 5.65 ± 1.53 μM for females; selenium: 2.74 ± 0.43 μM for males, 2.54 ± 0.7 μM for females) than lesser flamingos (copper: 2.45 ± 1.96 μM; selenium: 0.45 ± 0.29 μM). The mean ± SD of vitamins A, B1, and E and zinc are reported as entire group (male and female greater flamingos and lesser flamingos): vitamin A, 1.54 ± 0.45 μM; thiamine, 0.49 ± 0.07 μM; vitamin E, 31 ± 9.8 μmol/L; and zinc, 29.52 ± 6.49 μM.
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