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1 June 2013 REPEATED EXPOSURE OF GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS) TO TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222)
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Abstract

Goldfish that have been repeatedly exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) require greater concentration of the drug to attain equivalent planes of anesthesia, but the mechanism for this increased anesthetic need is unknown. Minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) is a commonly used method with which to compare anesthetics. It was hypothesized that fish exposed to MS-222 daily would have an increased MAC. It was also hypothesized that fish exposed daily to MS-222 would develop histomorphologic changes to their gills to explain the increasing demand. Forty-nine Serasa comet goldfish were enrolled and were divided into three populations (n = 15, n = 15, and n = 19). In trial 1, using an up–down method, MAC was determined daily after 4 min of exposure to MS-222 for which the starting concentration was 160 mg/L. In trial 2, MAC was determined following 2 min of exposure to MS-222 for which the starting concentration was 260 mg/L. In trial 3, four naive fish were euthanatized and gills collected for histology and electron microscopy (EM). The remaining fish were exposed to MS-222 daily for 4 wk. Four fish were euthanatized and their gills submitted for similar examination at 2 wk and 4 wk. MAC for fish exposed to MS-222 for 4 min increased from 120 to 160 mg/L. The regression line had a slope of 1.51 ± 0.26 (R2 = 0.65; P < 0.0001). MAC for fish exposed to MS-222 for 2 min increased from 210 pmm to 220 mg/L; the regression line had a slope of 0.52 ± 0.38 (R2 = 0.12; P = 0.2). Histologic and EM examination of gills did not show morphologic changes indicative of a reaction to MS-222. Goldfish in this study had an increased requirement for MS-222 following daily exposure for 4 min but not following daily exposure for 2 min at a higher concentration. The cause of this increased anesthetic need is not related to morphologic changes to the gills.

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Lysa Pam Posner, Gregory N. Scott, and J. McHugh Law "REPEATED EXPOSURE OF GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS) TO TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(2), 340-347, (1 June 2013). https://doi.org/10.1638/2012-0151R1.1
Received: 13 July 2012; Published: 1 June 2013
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