A 9-yr-old, female, intact Schmidt's red-tailed guenon (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) presented with an acute swelling, consistent with an abscess over the right hip. Cytology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from material within the abscess and serum titers were all indicative of a Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Thoracic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) revealed a consolidated right caudal lung lobe associated with an endobronchial mass. Pulmonary Cryptococcus infection and systemic disease was confirmed with positive brush cytology and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Culture and sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration values, and serum fluconazole level results were used to develop and monitor treatment efficacy for this animal. Sequential thoracic radiographs, CT images, bronchoscopy, BAL, and serology were used to monitor response to therapy. Five months after initial diagnosis, pregnancy was confirmed and the frequency of immobilizations for recheck serology and diagnostic imaging was decreased to lessen radiation exposure and physiologic stress to the dam and fetus. Long-term administration of oral fluconazole was well accepted and effective at treating the multifocal C. neoformans infection. No long-term adverse effects of therapy were observed, and repeated diagnostics were well tolerated. Advanced imaging modalities and serum drug levels were critical to the assessment, monitoring, and treatment of infection in this animal and should be considered for other cases.
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